Eat Protein and Plants!

As most of you know by now, I recommend consuming 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight. This means that a 100-pound girl running track should eat 100 grams of protein; a 200-pound strength athlete should consume 200 grams of protein; and a 300-pound adult trying to lose weight should aim for 300 grams of protein.

The reasons for this recommendation are as follows.

  • Protein has the highest thermogenic effect. 30% of the calories from protein are used during digestion and processing.
  • Protein is the most satiating nutrient, leaving one full for 4 – 9 hours.
  • Protein breaks down to amino acids. These are not only used for cell repair and maintenance, but also trigger the release of serotonin, dopamine, melatonin, etc, in the brain. These are chemicals that affect moods, energy levels, and feelings.
  • Excess protein will either be converted to sugars, to be used for fuel, or excreted in the urine.

A reservation people have to eating more protein is that it is “dangerous for the kidneys”. Studies of individuals with renal impairment, or complete kidney failure, show a worsening of symptoms when administering a high protein diet. However, no study has ever suggested that a healthy population can’t handle high amounts of protein. Processing excess nutrients is the main role of our kidneys.

Recent studies have gone as far as feeding participants up to 400 or 500 grams of protein a day. The worst side effects reported were feelings of being “bloated” or “hot”. As a side note, these individuals gained no fat, even though they were consuming over 1000 extra calories a day from protein.

The other concerns I hear stem from certain studies suggesting that protein, specifically meat, causes cancer. Next time you hear this, look at the study to verify the following:

  • Was the meat naturally raised? Was beef from 100% grass-fed cows? Were chickens raised in open pastures, feeding on seeds and bugs? More likely, the beef was from feedlots and the chickens were fattened to the point they could not stand.
  • What were the cooking conditions? Was the meat slow roasted or seared? We already know that black, crunchy sear-marks are carcinogenic.
  • Who were the individuals in the study and how were they tracked? The average American that consumes over a pound of protein a day is usually resorting to McDonald’s and pepperoni pizza, not chicken eggs from a friends backyard or a local burger with multiple cups of fresh vegetables.

Protein does cause an insulin release and increases mTOR signaling, leading to cell survival and proliferation. This is a good thing if you are exercising and attempting to displace fat with lean body mass. However, if you already have cancer, a lower protein diet, such as a ketogenic diet, will be more suitable.

A review of all macronutrient studies shows that diets higher in fat and protein, compared to high carb diets, result in:

  • Maintenance of more lean muscle mass
  • Greater loss of fat mass
  • Maintenance, or even an increase, in strength and performance

The only downside of protein is that healthy sources may not be inexpensive.

In areas with sustainable farming (such as where I live in Vermont), you can buy directly from a farmer. You may even be able to invest in a “cow-share” or similar program, paying for the cow before the government charges various fees. I have found grass-fed ground beef for as low as $3/lb. Search around and develop a relationship with local farmers.

Grass-fed beef, or pastured chicken and pork, may cost $5 – $10 a pound in typical markets. However, sales always occur, and meat can last for up to 12 months in a freezer before it loses flavor. Investing in a meat-freezer can help save money in the long run.

Another option is to find a high-quality protein supplement. I always recommend whole food from nature, but I am aware that having a full serving of protein (4 – 8 ounces of meat/fish, or 3 – 6 eggs) is not always easy and convenient.

In these situations, find a whey protein powder that is affordable and has as few ingredients as possible. I will do a post in the future comparing different forms of protein powders and brands.

In my experience, a client consuming 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight, is able to experience easy improvement in body composition and performance.

Ideally, every meal should have a large serving of protein, about the size of your hand, surrounded by vegetables, cooked in healthy fats, with a serving of berries or fruit as desert. And if you’re still hungry, have seconds of the veggies and protein. Don’t wait an hour or two and resort to crackers, cookies, or other packaged goods.

Just eat more protein and plants!

Steak and Veggies

3 News Articles

I know I reviewed a news article just last week, but this week I wanted to try something new and discuss multiple articles at once.

My hope is to provide more information at a time. Reviewing multiple articles also means I won’t get into the same level of detail – but this may make my postings easier to get through (I know not everyone is as interested in the scientific details and mechanisms).

The first article is about the updated F.D.A. guidelines recommending women that are pregnant or breast-feeding consume at least 8 ounces, or half a pound, of fish a week. This is a major shift in our nation’s guidelines.

Some fish, such as albacore tuna, have high levels of mercury that can be dangerous to women and infants. However, sardines and salmon (that happen to have the highest omega-3 content), will have much lower mercury because they simply do not live as long. As previously mentioned, mercury binds with selenium (found in high amounts in fish) so our bodies will not absorb the mercury.

An interesting thing I learned back in college: in the U.S., we recommend women avoid alcohol and eat vegetables while they are pregnant. However, in France, pregnant women used to be told to consume wine and to avoid certain vegetables such as spinach and broccoli.

As with everything, our knowledge is constantly changing and food producers are powerful enough to influence health recommendations.

Just consume the foods humans were meant to eat, in the quantity that is realistic in nature, and be aware of food sources. This way you will know if it contains more of something (mercury) or less of another (magnesium) than it once did.

The next article goes along with the typical understanding we are slowly coming around to – that saturated fat has no correlation with heart disease.

By now, we know that the science to vilify saturated fat and cholesterol was falsified:

“But as Tiecholz and other critics point out, Keys cherry-picked the seven countries he visited: the United States, the Netherlands, Finland, Yugoslavia, Italy, Greece and Japan.
Noticeably absent? Countries well known for their rich fatty foods but without high rates of heart disease, like Switzerland, Sweden and West Germany.
Based on his study, Keys promoted the Mediterranean diet: a diet high in fruits and vegetables, along with bread, pasta, olive oil, fish and dairy. But Teicholz pointed out that Keys visited Greece during Lent, a time when people abstain from eating meat, which in turn skewed his data.”

But, I also wanted to share this article for another quote:

“Take the 30-year follow-up to the landmark Framingham Heart Study, for example. It is one of the largest epidemiological studies evaluating the roots of heart disease in our country.
In the follow-up, scientists found that half the people who had heart attacks had below-average cholesterol levels. In fact, scientists concluded that “for each 1% mg/dL drop of cholesterol, there was an 11% increase in coronary and total mortality.””

This shows that lower total cholesterol levels increases ones risk of death!

I still think triglycerides, carried by oxidized (small and dense) LDL particles, can be a good predictor of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. However, high total cholesterol, with high HDL and fluffy and benign LDL, is actually protective for the body.

And, finally, the last article I’ll share with you today is comparing the sugar content of fruit juice and sugar.

Sound familiar? Scroll back a few months on my blog and you’ll see a post I had detailing how drinking orange juice is the same as drinking a coke, taking a fiber pill, and a multivitamin. Well, now the mainstream is coming around!

I always stay open to new information, and love to learn when I’m wrong, because it means I’m learning something new…but I do have to pat myself (and my “nutrition guru” peers) on the back occasionally.

Not that staying more up-to-date on research and delving into biological and chemical mechanisms more often than CNN, New York Times, and NPR is any amazing feet – things only make the news when there’s a catchy headline, photo, or agenda!

Well, I hope these 3 articles were interesting and helped provide just a few more reasons to move away from a diet based on processed foods and towards a lifestyle based around nature.

See you next week!

Improve Your Hormone Levels

As I promised a few weeks ago, I’ll provide some simple steps you can take to improve your hormone levels.

Just to reiterate, your hormone levels dictate a large part of your health, performance, and body composition.

For the actual details about healthy hormone levels and effects, please refer to my post about testosterone.

Without further ado, here are the safest and most effective tactics to manage healthy hormone levels:

• Make sure you are consuming a nutrient rich diet.
Any nutrient deficiency has the potential to negatively impact hormones, but the biggest culprits will be zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D, and magnesium. I’ll do a post explaining which foods have the most nutrient value later on but, for now, I’ll just recommend oysters, liver (if you can stand the flavor and have a high-quality source), avocados, eggs (particularly the yolk), and plenty of naturally-raised, well-treated meats, full of the fats and proteins your body needs to manufacture testosterone.

• Consume dietary cholesterol on a regular basis.
The best sources are eggs, shrimp, and fattier cuts of beef (grass-fed of course!). Cholesterol is a precursor to testosterone production. Keep in mind, the cholesterol you eat will only raise your HDL a little and have hardly any effect on triglycerides (the “bad” cholesterol in the blood).

• Avoid over-consuming carbohydrates.
Starches and sugars will cause insulin spikes in the blood. Your muscles can only store so many carbs before the insulin forces carbs to be stored in fat cells. This insulin will also disrupt normal hormone signaling.

• Get 8-9 hours of sleep a night.
During the first few hours of sleep, your body will release the largest amount of human growth hormone, allowing your body to recover from the day. I know everyone says they can get by with 6 hours…but your body composition, mental performance, and energy levels will always be better with a proper 8 hours of sleep.

• Lift something heavy a few times a week.
This will stimulate the body to produce testosterone to recover from the stimulus. Again, keep in mind that heavy lifting isn’t what produces bulky muscles…that would be higher repetitions (8-15) for multiple sets (3-4) with very little rest (30-90 seconds).

• Do some high intensity interval training.
Refer to my post from a few weeks ago. This has the potential of benefiting hormones more than any other exercise.

• Avoid alcohol.
Or at least try to moderate your intake. Alcohol will convert testosterone to estrogen within the body.

• Avoid stress.
This might be the most difficult but cortisol, released when you’re stressed, will lower testosterone levels. Some of the easiest things you can do are to limit your caffeine intake and take time during the day to stare off into nature or distract yourself from the stresses of our modern lives.

One final method for increasing testosterone levels is to supplement directly with hormones (a.k.a. steroids). However, this is a much more controversial and potentially unsafe method that I’ll save for another post.

Give all these things a try and see if you notice an improvement in body composition, strength, recovery, or just general mood and energy on a daily basis!

Ketosis

As I mentioned a few posts ago, some words are met with a great deal of confusion. An example of this, and the topic of today’s post, is the word “ketosis”.

When I use the word ketosis, most people immediately think of “ketoacidosis”.

Ketoacidosis is a condition that occurs in Type 1 diabetics or alcoholics. Simply put, the body becomes dependent upon sugar and loses the ability to use fats or proteins for energy. The energy substrates produced from fat, known as ketones, accumulate in the blood, increasing acidity, and causing a host of health issues, potentially leading to death.

However, ketoacidosis is quite different from ketosis.

Ketosis is the human body’s natural energy state. When an infant is born, it is born in ketosis. When we wake up, we are in ketosis. Whenever we go more than a few hours without sugar, we start producing ketones.

Ketosis is simply the body using fat, instead of sugar, for energy.

Even with regular carbohydrate intake, most of us should be able to go in and out of ketosis frequently. This is because the body’s production of ketones varies based upon activity level and energy sources available.

After a week or two of no sugar, the body will start producing and running exclusively off of ketones (as long as too much protein is not consumed). With regular sugar consumption, the body will have a much more immediate energy source and therefore will not produce as many ketone bodies.

However, the body can still achieve ketosis with a moderate intake of carbs if an individual is eating fewer calories than they need to maintain their weight. In this situation, the body will first use the sugar consumed but, since not enough calories are being consumed, the body will start breaking down its own fat stores for energy.

So, why am I talking about ketosis to begin with?

Well, as I mentioned, it is how the body uses its own fat stores for energy. However, with supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast-food restaurants every few blocks, very few of us ever go long enough without sugar to become as “fat-adapted” as humans were meant to be.

To ensure my body is able to use every fuel efficiently, I spend about 2 months of early spring in ketosis. This means I don’t consume any carbs beyond fibrous vegetables. Also, I don’t over consume protein in an attempt to gain muscle mass, as extra protein will be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis.

Not only does this help my body run efficiently regardless of my access to sugar, but it is also a very easy way to lean out. In just the first week of lower carb consumption, most people will lose 5 to 10 pounds from depleting their glycogen stores and not holding as much water weight.

Also, it is the constant fluctuation of insulin levels, and leptin signaling, from a short-term energy source such as carbohydrates, that dictates our hunger levels. So, when we are consuming healthy fats, fibrous veggies, and protein, our bodies don’t experience frequent drops in blood sugar and ravenous hunger or cravings for more sugar.

Finally, I find my time spent in ketosis helps improve my mood and energy levels. Usually my mind is racing and I am prone to seeing the negative side of things. However, when I am not regularly running off sugar, my thoughts are a lot more organized and focused while my energy is far more stable. This is because ketones are the most therapeutic fuel for the brain.

Ketosis, or limiting sugar intake, is becoming more commonly understood as doctors learn it is an effective way to prevent seizures in epileptics, reverse certain forms of cancer, or treat other conditions.

However, I feel the need to remind all my readers that I am not a doctor. I am not recommending a ketogenic diet for everyone. As with anything pertaining to the human body, if done incorrectly, it can be quite dangerous.

But, if you would like to try something a little different, and more natural than crash-diets and weight loss supplements, please contact me directly via e-mail or phone.

Remember – I’m here for you!

Orange Juice vs. Coca-Cola

How’s everyone’s week so far? I’m taking a recovery this week so, without the high intensity workouts or morning coffee, my energy levels aren’t as high as normal. However, my energy is much steadier all day and my anxiety is less severe without the stimulants from coffee and espresso.

This week, I wanted to exemplify how marketing by food companies have blinded the general public. Before I jump in, a little back-story explaining my motivation for this post:

I was having Christmas brunch with my family and, when asked why I was eating grapefruit but passing on the orange juice, I replied: “Orange juice is the same as soda, chemically speaking.”

Now, this statement sounds completely absurd based upon what we’ve been told our entire lives. How could the natural juice, squeezed fresh from an orange, be anywhere near as problematic for the body as a man-made liquid consisting of chemicals and corn syrup?

Now, of course, I was speaking casually and merely thinking of the actual breakdown of the sugars within the two beverages. But, due to how emotionally charged personal nutrition choices are, and how long we have been brainwashed to “start our day with a tall glass of orange juice”, my statement was met with hostile denial.

For all my followers trying to improve their health, I wanted to present the solid facts about how the body metabolizes these two liquids.

First, let’s look at a simple comparison of the nutritional content of the two drinks side-by-side.

Orange Juice

Coca-Cola

Calories

117

98

Total Carbs

27

25

     Sugar

24

25

     Fiber

0.8

0

     Other Carbs

2

0

Protein

1.7

0

Fat

0.4

0

Vitamins

     Vitamin A

9%

0%

     Vitamin C

125%

0%

     Folate

15%

0%

Minerals

     Magnesium

6%

0%

     Potassium

13%

0%

At first glance, we can see that orange juice has more calories per serving. I personally think other things are more important than number of calories but, usually doctors and dieticians prefer “low calorie” options…hence their aversion to fat which has twice as many calories per gram as carbs, yet offers better fuel for the human body.

We also see that orange juice has more sugar per serving. Maybe not according to how the labels are presented…they specify the grams of sugars and fiber but leave the remaining carbohydrate content unaccounted for. If you’ve read my post on carbs, you’ll remember that ALL carbs (besides fiber), have the same effect on the body. So, in essence, orange juice has 26 grams of sugar while Coke has 25 grams.

What about the trace amounts of fiber and all the vitamins and minerals in orange juice?

Well, first off, these facts are for juice with a medium amount of pulp. I personally loved the “lots of pulp” orange juice when I was young but, from what I’ve seen in the marketplace, the “no pulp” is more popular, negating the fiber content.

This brings me to my next issue with orange juice – the process of pasteurization.

Orange juice is heated to about 200 degrees Fahrenheit to kill all the living enzymes, thereby extending its shelf life. This heating separates the pulp (fiber) from the juice. The fiber in fruit mitigates blood sugar spikes and is one of the key elements that make such a high-sugar food healthy.

This pasteurization process also destroys most of the nutrients in juice which is why producers add synthetic vitamins to their products. Take a look at the ingredients in orange juice…I can almost guarantee “ascorbic acid” will be on the list.  This is to add vitamin C back into the drink after it was destroyed during heating.

For the sake of full disclosure, I left out about a dozen more vitamins and minerals that orange juice provides because it fulfilled less than 5% of the recommended daily values. And also, very few sources will be upfront when listing the nutrients that remain after pasteurization.

Maybe I’ll have a full post on pasteurization later because I feel myself getting off on a tangent. The takeaway point is that pasteurization takes a living thing (fruit and its juice) and damages everything in it…including beneficial bacteria, antioxidants, and nutrients.

So, to be fair, I should have stated that “Drinking orange juice is like drinking soda and taking a multi-vitamin and fiber pill at the same time.” Hahaha.

I certainly prefer a client drink orange juice rather than soda. But, at the end of the day, the profits are going to the same companies (for example, Coca-Cola owns Minute Maid) and the sugars are equally as damaging to the body.

To avoid sounding like a complete fanatic, I’d like to mention that I eat an orange, and plenty of other whole fruit, almost every day. This is a much healthier and more satisfying option. An orange is a natural, living thing from the earth that we were meant to consume.

If you really need your juice, try making your own either by squeezing or blending the whole fruit with a little water or ice. This will provide you with plenty of vitamin C and fiber, along with plenty of other nutrients and antioxidants.

I hope I didn’t scare anyone away from fruit with this post – just keep in mind that any packaged product will never be as healthy as the food it is made from.

So, enjoy a Navel or Valencia orange, especially before or after a workout, but skip the liquid sugars!

Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

As a logical follow-up to last week’s post, let’s look at what we can do to reduce our risk of cardiovascular disease.

So far, we learned that eating cholesterol does not increase the risk of cardiovascular events. In fact, 75% of people that suffer a heart attack have normal or low cholesterol levels in the body. Furthermore, taking cholesterol-lowering medications (such as statins) does not reduce the risk of heart attacks in 98% of the population.

So, if cholesterol consumption is irrelevant, what is causing our nations deterioration in cardiovascular health?

One word – inflammation!

It is the process of inflammation that damages the arteries, signaling the body to send cholesterol to protect the area. And it is, once again, inflammation that damages the cholesterol in the blood, causing it to harden, leading to plaque formation and clogged arteries.

There are a few things that cause inflammation. The first is consumption of unstable, easily-oxidized fats . The worst is man-made trans-fats. These are found in most butter replacements and aerosol cooking oils. Another problematic fat would be omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The biggest offenders here are corn oil, soy oil, and other modern vegetable oils.

Many natural foods, such as nuts and avocados, are quite high in O-6’s but, as long as they are consumed fresh and in moderation, without extremely volatile processing methods, they should not be problematic.

The second biggest cause of inflammation is excess sugar in the blood. If an individual consumes more carbohydrates than their muscles can store, the excess sugar will wreak havoc in the body until insulin forces it into fat storage. Sugar is toxic in very high amounts so it is no surprise that too much, idling in the blood, causes inflammation and damages the arteries.

The third biggest cause of inflammation is eating foods that are detrimental to the gut. Eventually I will have an entire post on gut health but, to put it simply, if you eat enough foods that have the potential to damage the gut lining, the offensive compounds will pass through the gut (a condition referred to as “gut permeability”) and cause inflammation elsewhere in the body. Grains and legumes contain many of these compounds…predominantly lectins. Lectin content can be diminished through extensive soaking, sprouting, and cooking but it’s still not wise to base a diet around such a problematic food.

So, man-made vegetable oils, excessive carbohydrate consumption, and grains cause inflammation…what does that leave?

Instead of using vegetable oils, try cooking at high-temperatures with coconut oil or grass-fed butter. Save your olive oil, avocados, and nuts for raw consumption.

No need to count every gram of carbohydrates; rather, focus on more nutritional sources such as vegetables and fruits (which will also have far less calories and sugar per serving than grains or legumes).

Finally, avoid grains when you can. I personally replaced them altogether with vegetables and locally, humanely-raised meat, but I know the idea of eliminating a food group we have grown up with can be daunting. So, maybe try only eating grains when you go out to your favorite pizza joint or restaurant.

Also, don’t forget to eat your healthy fats! Monounsaturated fats and even saturated fats will be far less inflammatory than grains and legumes. Since you’ll be limiting your intake of problematic carbs, that are high in calories and low in nutrition, a few extra calories from good fats will help keep you feeling satisfied and well-fueled.

As a personal trainer, I always have to mention to stay active as well! The more relaxing walks you can take the better. Throw in a couple weight-training workouts a week and an occasional high-intensity-interval-training session (sprints, rowing, etc) and you’ll be on the path to having a perfectly conditioned heart.

Best of luck!

Insulin Resistance

Two phrases I’ve used quite a lot, and never fully explained, are “insulin resistance” and “insulin sensitivity”. If you know what these terms mean, and how to alter them, you can drastically improve your metabolism, and by extension, your health.

Perhaps you’ve heard the term insulin resistance before as it is commonly understood as a part of diabetes. This is a rather limited view of a complex process.

Whenever food is consumed, the pancreas releases insulin to notify the cells of the body to absorb and store nutrients. This process is particularly active whenever sugars are consumed because they must be used immediately or stored to prevent their toxic characteristics from damaging the body. However, if glycogen stores are already full, cells become resistant to this insulin, meaning they can’t absorb more, and the sugars ends up flooding the bloodstream. This starts a dangerous cycle where the pancreas continues to produce more insulin in an attempt to clear the sugars from the bloodstream and, eventually, the sugars are forced into fat storage.

An important detail to note is that, for average people, fat accumulation in the body is not attributable to consumption of dietary fat, but rather the overconsumption of carbohydrates that are all broken down into sugars.

This process of insulin release is repeated until the cells in the body cannot utilize fat as energy and the entire metabolic system becomes dependent on constant sugar feedings or insulin injections…also known as Type II diabetes.

During this process, the arteries harden from the inflammatory and toxic nature of sugars, causing atherosclerosis. Nerve damage can ensue, leading to blindness. Also, the cells become resistant to amino acids so the muscles can’t even use protein.

Some symptoms of insulin resistance include:

  • An energy crash, feeling of low-blood sugar, brain-fog, or fatigue within a few hours of consuming a large carb meal.
  • Increased hunger and sugar cravings.
  • Weight accumulation, particularly around the midsection and hips.
  • Elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, and blood sugar.

Insulin and carbs are not inherently bad. They both serve an important purpose of storing energy for intense activity or times of stress and famine. However, it is estimated that for the first 200,000 years of our existence, humans consumed about 80 grams of carbs a day (varying by location). These carb were in the form of tough, fibrous vegetables and roots. The insulin release would be so minor that the cells of the body would stay primed to receive glucose.

Insulin sensitivity is the exact opposite of insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity suggests that the muscles are prepared to absorb glucose from the bloodstream with the aid of insulin.

I will list the most effective ways of promoting insulin sensitivity:

  • Moderating carb intake based on activity level.
  • Short periods of fasting where the body is encouraged to use fat as energy and break sugar dependence.
  • Consuming nutritious carbs such as fruits and vegetables that also contain fiber, mitigating insulin release.
  • Eating enough fat with every meal to blunt insulin secretion.
  • High-intensity interval training during which the body can only use glycogen as fuel.
  • Weight-lifting and other forms of exercise that place a demand upon the muscles and trains the metabolism to partition nutrients.

To put these tactics into a real-world context, I will explain my approach to maintaining insulin sensitivity:

On days I don’t work out, I limit my carb intake to a couple pieces of fruit and fibrous carbs. On my training days, I consume a large carb meal within 30 minutes of my workout to replenish glycogen stores.

On Friday, I have my last meal around 8 PM. On Saturday, around 11 AM, I walk to a steep hill where I do 10 to 15 sprint intervals in a fasted state. I walk home, stretch, shower, and have breakfast about an hour after my workout. In all, I fast about 16 hours. I’ll discuss fasting in another post because it can be a very effective, but potentially risky, method of improving health.

There are many other factors that can contribute to insulin resistance including vitamin D deficiency, heightened cortisol, highly acidic diets (building meals around grains instead of vegetables), consumption of trans-fats and oxidized poly-fats, and omega-3 deficiency.

Some studies suggest high-fat diets are a leading cause of insulin resistance but these studies merely replaced each gram of carbs with a gram of fat, resulting in an enormous calorie excess due to the fact that fats have 9 calories per gram and carbs only have 4. The most reliable study I have come across shows that after 12 weeks of replacing grains and dairy with vegetables and fruits, a type 2 diabetes diagnosis was completely reversed…meaning the body became insulin sensitive again.

So, if you experience sugar cravings or a blood sugar crash after eating, maybe try eating lower carb on the days you aren’t as active. Also, try to substitute nutritious carbs, such as vegetables and fruits, for less nutritious foods such as soda and snack bars filled with sugars and grains. Finally, throw in a tough workout every few days to create a demand within the muscles for any carbs you consume.

If you’d like me to recommend a more specific carb intake for your activity level, let me know!